Discover What is all means in the The 5G World Glossary...
Second generation wireless telephony technology (2G) refers to telecom network technologies. Second generation wireless is a set of standards made for mobile telecommunication which are maintained and described by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
3G, short for third generation, is the third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology. It is the upgrade for 2G and 2.5G GPRS networks, for faster internet speed
In telecommunication, Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for high-speed wireless communication for mobile devices and data terminals.
LTE Advanced Pro (LTE-A Pro, also known as 4.5G, 4.5G Pro, 4.9G, Pre-5G, 5G Project) is a name for 3GPP release 13 and 14. It is the next-generation cellular standard following LTE Advanced (LTE-A) and supports data rates in excess of 3 Gbit/s using 32-carrier aggregation. It also introduces the concept of License Assisted Access, which allows sharing of licensed and unlicensed spectrum.
5G is the term used to describe the next-generation of mobile networks beyond LTE mobile networks. According to ITU guidelines, 5G network speeds should have a peak data rate of 20 Gb/s for the downlink and 10 Gb/s for the uplink. Latency in a 5G network could get as low as 4 milliseconds in a mobile scenario and can be as low as 1 millisecond in Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication scenarios. Not only will people be connected to each other but so will machines, automobiles, city infrastructure, public safety and more.
Small cells are low-powered cellular radio access nodes that operate in licensed and unlicensed spectrum that have a range of 10 meters to a few kilometers. Recent FCC orders have provided size and elevation guidelines to help more clearly define small cell equipment.
The radio access network (RAN) has been in use since the beginning of cellular technology and has evolved through the generations of mobile communications (1G through 5G). Components of the RAN include a base station and antennas that cover a given region depending on their capacity.
Multi-Access Edge Computing (MEC) moves the computing of traffic and services from a centralized cloud to the edge of the network and closer to the customer. Instead of sending all data to a cloud for processing, the network edge analyzes, processes, and stores the data. Collecting and processing data closer to the customer reduces latency and brings real-time performance to high-bandwidth applications
The 5G spectrum is a range of radio frequencies in the sub-6 GHz range and the millimeter-wave frequency range that is 24.25 GHz and above. The 5G spectrum refers to the radio frequencies that carry data from user equipment (UE) to cellular base stations to the data's endpoint
Network densification is a term commonly heard in the wireless industry. Thanks to smartphones and tablets, wireless subscribers are using more network resources than ever before—and that amount of consumption continues to rise. Operators need to add more capacity to their networks to continue handling all the traffic while providing the network speeds those users expect. Network densification is a means for doing so.
Wi-Fi 6, also known as 802.11ax, is the latest generation and standard for wireless internet that replaces the 802.11ac, or Wi-Fi 5, standard. Prior to the release of Wi-Fi 6, Wi-Fi standards were identified by version numbers ranging from 802.11b to 802.11ac.
This is a technique used by wireless carriers to basically reduce usage of their cellular networks by having you use your home or free local WiFi hotspots for your smartphone's data connection.
Network Function Virtualization
Network functions virtualization (also network function virtualization or NFV) is a network architecture concept that uses the technologies of IT virtualization to virtualize entire classes of network node functions into building blocks that may connect, or chain together, to create communication services. NFV relies upon, but differs from, traditional server-virtualization techniques, such as those used in enterprise IT. A virtualized network function, or VNF, may consist of one or more virtual machines running different software and processes, on top of standard high-volume servers, switches and storage devices, or even cloud computing infrastructure, instead of having custom hardware appliances for each network function.
Software Defined Networking
Software-defined networking (SDN) technology is an approach to network management that enables dynamic, programmatically efficient network configuration in order to improve network performance and monitoring making it more like cloud computing than traditional network management. SDN is meant to address the fact that the static architecture of traditional networks is decentralized and complex while current networks require more flexibility and easy troubleshooting.
Network architecture is the design of a computer network. It is a framework for the specification of a network's physical components and their functional organization and configuration, its operational principles and procedures, as well as communication protocols used. In telecommunication, the specification of a network architecture may also include a detailed description of products and services delivered via a communications network, as well as detailed rate and billing structures under which services are compensated.
Network Interoperability is the continuous ability to send and receive data among the interconnected networks, providing the quality level expected by the end user without any negative impact to the sending and receiving networks.
Evolving networks are networks that change as a function of time. They are a natural extension of network science since almost all real world networks evolve over time, either by adding or removing nodes or links over time.
Network optimization is technology used for improving network performance for a given environment. It is considered an important component of effective information systems management. Network optimization plays an important role as information technology is growing at exponential rates with business users producing large volumes of data and thus consuming larger network bandwidths.
A mesh network (or simply meshnet) is a local network topology in which the infrastructure nodes (i.e. bridges, switches, and other infrastructure devices) connect directly, dynamically and non-hierarchically to as many other nodes as possible and cooperate with one another to efficiently route data from/to clients. This lack of dependency on one node allows for every node to participate in the relay of information. Mesh networks dynamically self-organize and self-configure, which can reduce installation overhead.
Wireless backhaul is the use of wireless communications systems to get data from an end user to a node in a major network such as the Internet or the proprietary network of a large business, academic institution or government agency.
5G network slicing is a network architecture that enables the multiplexing of virtualized and independent logical networks on the same physical network infrastructure. Each network slice is an isolated end-to-end network tailored to fulfil diverse requirements requested by a particular application. For this reason, this technology assumes a central role to support 5G mobile networks that are designed to efficiently embrace a plethora of services with very different service level requirements (SLA). The realization of this service-oriented view of the network leverages on the concepts of software-defined networking (SDN) and network function virtualization (NFV) that allow the implementation of flexible and scalable network slices on top of a common network infrastructure.
In a hierarchical telecommunications network, the backhaul portion of the network comprises the intermediate links between the core network, or backbone network, and the small subnetworks at the edge of the network.
The fronthaul portion of a C-RAN (Cloud Radio Access Network) telecommunications architecture comprises the intermediate links between the centralized radio controllers and the radio heads (or masts) at the "edge" of a cellular network. In general it is coincident with the backhaul network, but subtly different. Technically in a C-RAN the backhaul data is only decoded from the fronthaul network at the centralised controllers, from where it is then transferred to the core network.
Massive multiple-input, multiple-output, or massive MIMO, is an extension of MIMO, which essentially groups together antennas at the transmitter and receiver to provide better throughput and better spectrum efficiency. This method’s ability to multiply the capacity of the antenna links has made it an essential element of wireless standards including 802.11n (Wi-FI), 802.11ac (Wi-Fi), HSPA+, WiMAX and LTE.
Beamforming is a type of RF (radio frequency) management in which an access point uses multiple antennas to send out the same signal.
Telco-OTT (Over-The-Top) is where a telecommunications service provider delivers one or more services across an IP network. It embraces a variety of telco services including communications (e.g. voice and messaging), content (e.g. TV and music) and cloud-based (e.g. compute and storage) offerings.
Mission Critical Communications
Mission- critical-communications is often defined as the ability of delivering communication means where conventional networks cannot meet the required demands. Currently public safety organizations are frustrated by the limitations of data over their dedicated networks.
In computer network and computer science, digital bandwidth or just bandwidth means the amount of data that can be sent from one point to another in a certain period of time. It is measured as a bit rate expressed in bits per second (bits/s) or multiples of it (kbit/s Mbit/s etc.)
Enhanced Mobile Broadband
eMBB (Enhanced Mobile Broadband) is a natural evolution to existing 4G networks that will provide faster data rates and therefore a better user experience than current mobile broadband services.
A heterogeneous network is a network connecting computers and other devices with different operating systems and/or protocols. For example, local area networks (LANs) that connect Microsoft Windows and Linux based personal computers with Apple Macintosh computers are heterogeneous.
As of January 2020, commercial 5G networks have been deployed in 378 cities across 34 countries. The country boasting the most cities with 5G availability is South Korea with 85, followed by China with 57, the US with 50, and the UK with 31 cities. The 5G worldwide race for the best 5G network is only just beginning!
5G Signalling Security
5G Is More Secure Than 4G and 3G, because 5G encrypts more data, so less is flying around in the clear for anyone to intercept. 5G is also a much more software and cloud-based system than previous wireless networks, which will allow for better monitoring to spot potential threats
The industry consortium setting standards for 5G is the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). It defines any system using 5G NR (5G New Radio) software as "5G", a definition that came into general use by late 2018. Minimum standards are set by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).
Telecoms are monetizing their 5G networks by offering premium phone plans and new value-add services. However, premium phone plans may offer limited potential revenue as consumers are not willing to see an increase in their bills, according to PwC. Therefore, 5G monetization will rely on value-add services largely unique to 5G, which include improved support for Internet of Things (IoT) devices, improved wireless service in densely packed stadiums, and fixed wireless access home internet.
Also known as a local or non-public 5G network, a private 5G network is a local area network (LAN) that will use 5G technologies to create a dedicated network with unified connectivity, optimised services and a secure means of communication within a specific area
The 5G Ecosystem is a rapidly expanding industry of suppliers from device manufacturing, network supply and maintenance, system integration, test & validation and consulting
5G Use Cases
The rollout of 5G will provide benefits in three major areas, also known as the “5G triangle”: uRLLC: Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication use cases. mMTC: Massive Machine Type Communication (IoT) use cases. eMBB: Enhanced Mobile Broadband – high speed use cases
Evolving networks are networks that change as a function of time. They are a natural extension of network science since almost all real world networks evolve over time, either by adding or removing nodes or links over time
5G is an emerging technology that transforms underlying architecture in core networks and promotes virtualization, AI and automation. It changes the possibilities of networks, applications and underlying IT systems. It introduces new technologies such as edge compute and network slicing to enable the introduction and ubiquity of immersive solutions. These solutions are what will provide the tools for organizations – IT departments and lines of business – to transform digitally and create new business outcomes that have traditionally not been associated with IT.